Hernia of the esophagus - symptoms, diet and treatment

A hernia of the esophagus, otherwise known as diaphragmatic, is the protrusion of its lower part through the opening of the diaphragm. Let's see what it is, and also consider the symptoms, diet and treatment of hernia of the esophagus.

In the human body there is an important organ - the diaphragm, which consists of the muscular septum and separates the abdominal cavity from the chest cavity.

In the diaphragm there is a hole consisting of muscle fibers through which the esophagus passes. This hole is called the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. Sometimes, through it into the chest cavity can be displaced and other organs, located in the abdominal cavity.

Although the disease is not particularly dangerous, when diagnosing it you should carefully take care of your health. Therefore, further will be considered how to treat a hernia of the esophagus.

The reasons

What it is? There may be several causes of hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm. In some patients, a hernia is nothing but a congenital phenomenon caused by shortening of the esophagus, others show a tendency to a hernia in old age, and age-related changes in the internal organs are felt.

Very often, the cause of this disease is an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, which manifests itself systematically or sharply. Constipation, heavy physical labor, weight lifting, and abdominal trauma can in turn lead to an increase in pressure. There are also cases when the appearance of a hernia is caused by diseases of other internal organs - these are problems of motility of the stomach, duodenum, gall bladder, etc.

Hernia of the esophagus is much more common in people after 50 years, because the natural process of loss of elasticity of muscles and internal organs occurs. By the age of 60, for many people, the esophageal opening is so large that it can miss 2-3 fingers - a "hernial ring" is formed.

Often, hernia of the esophageal orifice goes “in complex” with a gastric and duodenal ulcer (from 30 to 70% of all cases), chronic gastroduodenitis (50%), pancreatitis and cholecystitis (15% and up to 50%, respectively).

Paraesophageal hernia

This type of hernia is extremely rare. There are no manifestations of the patient. Pathology is discovered by chance as a result of examinations for another reason. The exceptions are hernias that have reached a large size, which leads to the development of organic dysphagia, which is permanent, almost not amenable to treatment with antispasmodic drugs.

If such a hernia is infringed, pain syndrome develops (in the epigastric region and behind the sternum).

Symptoms of hernia of the esophagus

In the case of a hernia of the esophagus, the symptoms may manifest themselves in different ways. When it is small, the patient may feel quite well, since the disease itself almost does not manifest itself.

Otherwise, the symptoms depend on the size of the hernia, its type, and also - the presence of complications and associated diseases:

  1. Heartburn. The most frequent symptom, from barely noticeable to painful, up to disability. Most often manifested after a meal and at night.
  2. Pain concerns only 50% of patients. The pain is most often localized in the retrosternal region (therefore, it should be differentiated with an attack of angina), has a burning, piercing and cutting character. Exercise, accompanied by slopes, is a provoking factor for the occurrence of pain. Pain may increase when the patient is in a horizontal position.
  3. Dysphagia - difficulty passing food through the esophagus. It is observed during the passage of almost any kind of food, and is especially pronounced with hot, cold food or eating large quantities.
  4. Belching is another very characteristic symptom of this disease. A feature of belching with hernia of the esophagus is that it is observed only in 35-70% of all patients and, as a rule, occurs either with the contents of the stomach or with air. This condition can occur completely suddenly during a meal or while talking.
  5. Hiccups It is observed rarely, but it has a long (up to several weeks) character.

In the case of a sliding hernia, symptoms are observed only when the contents of the stomach are cast into the esophagus. It can be heartburn, belching, nausea.

Diagnostics

The signs allow an experienced specialist to establish a diagnosis fairly accurately. Esophageal hernia is usually diagnosed based on common symptoms and the results of some tests:

  • X-ray examination based on barium contrast, in which the hernial protrusion is clearly seen in the image;
  • fibrogastroscopy, which helps to clarify the general condition of the stomach;
  • pH-metry, with which the acidity of the stomach is measured, which is important when prescribing treatment.

How to treat a hernia of the esophagus will depend on each case.

Diet

Nutrition for diaphragmatic hernia should be frequent in small portions. 3 hours before bedtime do not eat. Fried foods, sweets, spicy seasonings, alcohol, sour juices, smoked foods, strong tea, coffee should be excluded from the diet - all these products increase the acidity of the gastric juice and increase the symptoms of a stomach hernia.

Diet for hernia of the esophagus should limit sour milk drinks, milk, cabbage, fresh bread, peas, grapes, carbonated drinks - these products enhance flatulence, which is also harmful for the patient. Before meals and after, you can drink one tablespoon of unrefined oil.

But these are general recommendations, each organism is individual, therefore it is desirable for each patient to make a list of products for himself, after which he develops heartburn, bloating, belching.

Treatment of hernia of the esophagus

First of all, methods of conservative character are applied for the treatment of hernia. If they do not give results, then surgical intervention is used.

The main requirement for treatment is to balance the diet. As a rule, experts appointed a diet. The main task during treatment is to eliminate the possibility of transferring the contents of the stomach into the esophagus and the occurrence of erosions and ulcers.

Conservative therapy begins with the use of drugs that reduce gastric acidity and secretion of enzymes, as well as drugs to protect the esophageal mucosa. Some experts consider surgery for hernia of the esophagus as an extreme measure of treatment, but often it becomes the only way to rid the patient of permanent manifestations of pathology.

Usually surgical treatment is carried out if there are indications for it:

  • severe esophagitis, not amenable to medication;
  • a large hernia of the esophagus, especially if it is accompanied by difficulty in passing food and / or throwing food from
  • stomach into the esophagus;
  • chiaral hernia with a high probability of infringement or has already caused the development of complications (anemia, narrowing of the esophagus, and so on);
  • anatomical insufficiency of the lower sphincter of the diaphragm;
  • obstructed hernia;
  • Barrett's esophagus.

Surgery can be performed by an open method or with a laparoscope. There are several types of operations for hernia of the esophagus:

  • Nissen fundoplication;
  • Belci operation;
  • gastrocardiopsy;
  • Allison technique.

The choice of a method will depend on the patient himself and the presence of contraindications.

How to treat a hernia of the esophagus folk remedies

If due to certain circumstances modern methods of treatment are not suitable, then you can turn to traditional medicine, using proven recipes.

The following methods are known:

  1. Crush and mix equal parts (one tablespoon) of the leaves of coltsfoot and flax seeds, peppermint grass, and Althea root. Pour three tablespoons of the collection with a liter of cold water and leave for one hour. Then put on a low heat and boil for five minutes in a water bath. Cool and strain, Drink 5-6 times a day for ½ cup of broth.
  2. Infusion of gooseberry leaves. Half a liter of boiling water will need a tablespoon of dry crushed leaves of the shrub. It is necessary to insist about 2 hours, then drink before meals for half a glass, 4 times a day.
  3. Broth milk kupeny. Take 25 g dry kupeny and filled with milk (2 tbsp.). The mixture is boiled over a minimum of fire for a couple of minutes. Then cooled, filtered. You need to take the medicine several times a day for 2 tbsp. l .;

Use popular recipes worth after consultation with the doctor.

Watch the video: What is a hiatal hernia? (February 2020).

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