SARS (acute respiratory viral infection) is a huge group of diseases that are caused by various DNA and RNA viruses (about 200).
They affect the respiratory system and are easily transmitted by airborne droplets. The disease always occurs acutely and proceeds with pronounced symptoms of a cold.
This is one of the most common diseases: schoolchildren in 80% of cases miss classes because of the incidence of ARVI, and adults for the same reason lose almost half of their working time. Today we will discuss ARVI - the symptoms and treatment of this infection.
The main causes of viral respiratory infection are about two hundred different viruses:
- flu and parainfluenza, avian and swine flu;
- Adenovirus, PC virus;
- rhinovirus, picornavirus;
- coronavirus, bokaruvirus, etc.
The source of infection becomes sick in the period of incubation and in the prodromal period, when the concentration of viruses in its biological secrets is maximum. The route of transmission is airborne, when sneezing, coughing, talking, shouting with small particles of mucus and saliva.
There may be infection through the common utensils and household items, through the dirty hands of children and through food that has been seeded with viruses. Susceptibility to viral infection is different - people with strong immunity may not get infected or suffer a mild disease.
Contribute to the development of respiratory infections such factors as:
- poor nutrition;
- chronic infections;
- unfavorable ecology.
Signs of disease
The first signs of SARS in adults and children include:
- temperature rise;
- sore throat;
- runny nose;
- weakness, malaise;
- bronchitis and / or tracheitis.
Symptoms of SARS in adults
SARS usually proceeds in stages, the period of incubation from the moment of infection to the onset of the first symptoms varies, ranging from several hours to 3-7 days.
During the period of clinical manifestations, all acute respiratory viral infections have similar manifestations of varying severity:
- nasal congestion, runny nose, nasal discharge from scarce to heavy and watery, sneezing and itchy nose,
- sore throat, discomfort, pain when swallowing, red throat,
- cough (dry or wet),
- moderate fever (37.5–38 degrees) to severe (38.5–40 degrees),
- general malaise, refusal to eat, headaches, drowsiness,
- red eyes, burning, tearing,
- digestive disorders with loose stools,
- rarely is the reaction of the lymph nodes in the jaw and neck, in the form of an increase with mild soreness.
The symptoms of SARS in adults depend on the specific type of virus, and can vary from a minor runny nose and cough to pronounced febrile and toxic manifestations. On average, the manifestations last from 2-3 to seven or more days, the febrile period lasts up to 2-3 days.
The main symptom of ARVI is high infectivity for others, whose terms depend on the type of virus. On average, the patient is infectious during the last days of the incubation period and the first 2-3 days of clinical manifestations, gradually the number of viruses decreases and the patient becomes not dangerous in terms of the spread of infection.
In young children, a symptom of ARVI is often a disorder of the chair - diarrhea. Toddlers often complain of pain appearing in the abdomen at the first stage of the disease, then disorder and then a sharp rise in temperature. Perhaps the appearance of a rash on the body of the child. Cough and runny nose may appear later - sometimes even every other day. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor the status of babies, and monitor the emergence of new signs.
How and what to treat ARVI when the first symptoms appear, we will look at a little lower.
How many days does the temperature keep at a pervy?
Sore throat and sneezing appear in the early stages of the disease. And usually pass in 3-6 days.
- Low-grade fever (mild fever) and muscle aches usually accompany the initial symptoms, fever stays around the week, says Dr. Komarovsky.
- Nasal congestion, sinuses, and ear sinuses are common symptoms that usually persist during the first week. In about 30% of all patients, these symptoms persist for two weeks, although all these symptoms usually disappear in 7-10 days.
- Usually, the first few days the nasal sinuses are not clogged, copious watery mucus is secreted from the nose, but after a while the mucus becomes thicker, takes on a color (green or yellow). A change in the color of the discharge does not automatically indicate the presence of a bacterial infection, in most cases the condition disappears in 5-7 days.
- Cough appears in most cases of ARVI, and is usually more productive than with the flu. Phlegms vary from clear to yellow-green and usually disappear in 2-3 weeks.
Although, a prolonged dry cough can persist for 4 weeks in 25% of all infectious diseases.
Influenza virus is not in vain excluded by the majority of specialists from the ORZ group. Its differences from the common cold are lightning development, increased severity of the disease, as well as complex treatment and an increased percentage of mortality.
- The flu comes unexpectedly and in a matter of hours completely captures your body;
- The flu is characterized by a sharp rise in temperature (in some cases up to 40.5 degrees), increased sensitivity to light, body aches and pains: head and muscle;
- On the first day of the flu, you are protected from the common cold, which is characteristic only of this virus;
- The most active phase of the flu occurs on the third or fifth day of the disease, and the final recovery takes 8-10 days.
- Given that the infection of the flu affects the vessels, it is for this reason that hemorrhages are possible: gingival and nasal;
- After suffering the flu, you can pick up another disease in the next 3 weeks, such diseases often occur very painfully and can be fatal.
Until today, there are no truly effective measures for the specific prevention of SARS. Strict adherence to the sanitary and hygienic regime in the epidemic center is recommended. This is a regular wet cleaning and airing of the premises, thorough washing of dishes and personal care products for patients, wearing cotton gauze dressings, frequent hand washing, etc.
It is important to increase the resistance of children to the virus through hardening, receiving immunomodulators. Also, the method of prevention is considered vaccination against influenza.
During an epidemic, crowded places should be avoided, more often walking in the open air, taking multivitamin complexes or ascorbic acid preparations. It is recommended in the home every day to eat onions and garlic.
How to treat ARVI?
Treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in adults with a standard course of illness is usually carried out in a patient's home. Compulsory bed rest, abundant drinking, drugs to combat the symptoms of the disease, light but healthy and nutrient-rich food, warming up procedures and inhalations, taking vitamins.
Many of us know that temperature is good, because this is how the body “fights” with invaders. To bring down the temperature is possible only if it has risen above 38 degrees, because after this mark there is a threat to the state of the patient's brain and heart.
It should also be remembered that antibiotics for ARVI are not used, as they are shown for ARDs of exclusively bacterial origin (eg, tonsillitis), and ARVI is caused by viruses.
- For the direct control of the causative agent of the disease, antiviral drugs are prescribed: Remantadin (age limit from seven years of age), Amantadin, Oseltamivir, Amizon, Arbidol (age limit from two years), Amiks
- NSAIDs: paracetamol, ibuprofen, diclofenac. These drugs have an anti-inflammatory effect, reduce body temperature, reduce pain. It is possible to take these drugs as part of medicinal powders such as Coldrex, Tera - flu, etc. It should be remembered that the temperature should not be reduced below 38 ° C, since it is at this body temperature that the body activates protective mechanisms against infection. The exceptions are sick, prone to convulsions, and small children.
- Cough medicine. The main goal of cough treatment is to make sputum sufficiently liquid for expectoration. Drinking regimen greatly helps in this, since the consumption of warm liquid dilutes the sputum. If there are difficulties in expectoration, you can use the expectorant drugs mukaltin, ACC, bronholitin and others. It is not necessary to prescribe drugs that reduce the cough reflex, because it can lead to dangerous consequences.
- Intake of vitamin C can accelerate recovery from acute respiratory viral infections and relieve the condition, but does not prevent the development of the disease.
- For the treatment of rhinitis and improve nasal breathing, vasoconstrictor preparations (Phenylephrine, Oxymetazon, Xylometazoline, Naphazoline, Indanazolamine, Tetrizolin, etc.) are shown, and, if necessary, more prolonged use is recommended, containing essential oils (Pinosol, Kameton, Evkazolin, etc.).
- A good help in combating the body with an infection will be the use of immunomodulators, such as the drug Imupret. It enhances immunity and has anti-inflammatory effect, significantly reducing the period of ARVI. This is exactly the remedy, which is indicated for both prevention and treatment of colds.
- In case of significant pain and inflammation in the throat, rinsing with antiseptic solutions, such as furatsilin (1: 5000) or herbal infusions (calendula, chamomile, etc.) is recommended.
Be sure to call the doctor if you or your child have any of the following symptoms: temperature higher than 38.5 ° C; Strong headache; pain in the eyes from the light; chest pain; shortness of breath, noisy or frequent breathing, difficulty in breathing; skin rashes; pale skin or spots on it; vomiting; difficulty waking up in the morning or unusual drowsiness; persistent cough or muscle aches.
Antibiotics for Orvi
SARS is not treated with antibiotics. They are completely powerless against viruses, they are used only when bacterial complications occur.
Therefore, do not use antibiotics without a doctor's prescription. These are unsafe drugs for the body. In addition, the uncontrolled administration of antibiotics leads to the emergence of resistant forms of bacteria.